Few points from our previous discussion on PHP-MySQL Affair are highlighted below:

  1. Connect to the server
    • Host-name of the database server
    • User name/ID and a password
  2. Select the database to work on
  3. Run the query on the database.
  4. Replies back with a result set resource
  5. Retrieve a row of results
  6. Process the attribute values
  7. Close the connection to database server

PHP Functions for Manipulating MySQL Database

  • mysql_connect — Open a connection to a MySQL Server
  • mysql_ping — Ping a server connection or reconnect if there is no connection
  • mysql_close — Close MySQL connection
  • mysql_error — Returns text of error message from previous MySQL operation
  • mysql_list_dbs — List databases available on a MySQL server
  • mysql_select_db — Select a MySQL database
  • mysql_list_tables — List tables in a MySQL database
  • mysql_list_fields — List MySQL table fields
  • mysql_query — Send a MySQL query
  • mysql_affected_rows — Get number of affected rows in previous MySQL operation
  • mysql_num_rows — Get number of rows in result
  • mysql_fetch_array — Fetch a result row as an associative array, a numeric array, or both
  • mysql_fetch_assoc — Fetch a result row as an associative array
  • mysql_fetch_row — Get a result row as an enumerated array
  • mysql_fetch_object — Fetch a result row as an object
  • mysql_fetch_field — Get column information from a result

Adding Actionable Hyperlinks

<th>First Name</th> <th>Last Name</th> <th>Email</th>
$conn = mysql_connect("localhost", "root", "");
mysql_select_db("AddressBook", $conn);
$result = mysql_query("select * from contacts");
while ($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) {
print "<td>" . $row["LastName"] . "</td>";
print "<td>" . $row["email"] . "</td>";
print "<td><a href='remove.php?id=".$row["ID"]."'>   Remove </a></td>";
print "</tr>";
$cid = $_GET['id'];
$conn = mysql_connect("localhost", "root", "");
mysql_select_db("AddressBook", $conn);
$query = "DELETE FROM Contacts WHERE id={$cid}";
If(mysql_affected_rows($query) ) {
print mysql_affected_rows($query)." row(s) Deleted   successfully";

Interaction with the User

Populate form fields with information from database. Send the user input to PHP script for storing in the database.

Populating Selection Box

<form action="do-add.php" method=post>

$results = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM Groups", $conn);
print '<select name="group">';
while ($group = mysql_fetch_array($results)) {
   print "<option value=‘" . $group["id"] . "'> " .  $group["name"]" . "</option>";
print '</select>';


$group_id = _POST['group'];
$query = "INSERT INTO Contacts VALUES " group=$group_id";
mysql_query($query, $conn);
if( mysql_affected_rows($conn) ) {
   print "New contact added successfully";

Secure Configuration

  • Don’t run MySQL as administrator/root. Run it as a user created specifically for this purpose.  Don’t use this account for anything else.
  • Don’t access web database with root user. Create a separate admin account for each database for reading and writing from PHP script.
  • Disallow access to port 3306 (or whatever port you have MySQL running on) except from trusted hosts.

Accounts and Privileges

  • All MySQL accounts should have a password, especially root.
  • Grant users the minimum level of privilege required to do their job. Principle of Least Privilege
  • Set permissions on the database directories so that only appropriate user can access them.
  • Only the root user should have access to the mysql database, which contains privilege information.

Granting Privileges

  • This is a command to create users and give them privileges. A simplified general syntax is

GRANT privileges ON item TO user_name

  • If you use WITH GRANT OPTION, you allow the user to grant other users the privileges that you have given to him.
  • REVOKE is opposite of GRANT.


  • SELECT allows users to select (read) records from tables.
  • INSERT allows users to insert new rows into tables.
  • UPDATE allows users to change values in existing table rows.
  • DELETE allows users to delete table rows (records).
  • INDEX allows user to index tables
  • ALTER allows users to change the structure of the database.
  • DROP allows users to delete databases or tables.
  • CREATE allows users to create new databases or tables. If a specific database or table is mentioned in the GRANT statement, users can only create that database or table.
  • USAGE allows users nothing.
  • ALL means just that.

Using Encryption

  • Don’t store application passwords in plaintext in the database.  (Use hashing mechanisms)
  • PHP has an in built sha1() function that calculates hashing scheme of a string.
  • The result of sha1() can not be translated back into the original string.
  • This makes it a good way to store password.
  • $safe_password=sha1($password);

Next >> Lecture 6. Variables passing in PHP

Tagged with: PHP

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